Conditional Sentences (Kalimat Bersyarat Atau Pengandaian)

Posted on
Conditional sentences merupakan kalimat bersyarat atau kalimat pengandaian. Kalimat bersyarat atau pengandaian umumnya sanggup diungkapkan dengan memakai klausa “if” atau “apabila”.

Suatu kalimat bersyarat terdiri dari dua klausa ialah klausa utama (main clause) dan klausa syarat (if clause or conditional clause). Suatu klausa utama hanya akan bernilai benar atau tercapai apabila klausa syarat telah terpenuhi.

Selanjutnya, kita sanggup menarik suatu kesimpulan menurut kalimat bersyarat yang digunakan. Dalam penulisannya, kita sanggup meletakkan klausa utama di awal atau di selesai kalimat.

Dalam bahasa Inggris, ada tiga jenis atau tipe kalimat bersyarat ialah tipe 1, tipe 2, dan tipe 3 yang akan kita dibahas melalui tabel dan diagram di bawah ini.

Sebagaimana yang terlihat pada diagram di bawah, kalimat bersyarat (conditional sentences) terdiri dari tiga tipe yang terdapat huruf masing-masing yang berbeda.
 Conditional sentences merupakan kalimat bersyarat atau kalimat pengandaian CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (KALIMAT BERSYARAT ATAU PENGANDAIAN)

Berikut disaapabilan tabel yang menawarkan ciri-ciri dari masing-masing tipe kalimat bersyarat beserta kesimpulannya (meaning).

If clause Main Clause Meaning
I. If Simple Present
S + V1-s/es
S + is/am/are
Simple Future
S + will/shall + inf
S + will/shall be
Masih cukup terjadi.
Maybe, Perhaps,
Probably, Possibly.
Example :
If I have much money, I will buy those motorcycles.
Maybe I have much money
and buy those motorcycles.
II. If Simple Past
S + V2
S + were
Past Future
S + would/should + inf
S + would/should + be
Simple Present
S + V1-s,es/ is,am,are
Berlawanan dengan kalimat
Example :
 I would have the computer if the price were cheaper.
I don’t have the computer.
The price is not cheaper.
III. If Past Perfect
S + had + V3
S + had + been
Past Future Perfect
S + would/should + have +V3
S + would/should + have + been
Simple Past
S + V2/was/were
Berlawanan dengan kalimat
Example :
If She had stayed with me last night,
She wouldn’t have been so lonely.
She stayed with another man.
She was lonely.
Baca Juga:   Kumpulan Model Soal Sbmptn Adverb Clause

Note !:
Pada tipe 2, untuk if clause tak dipakai tobe “was”. Apapun subjeknya baik itu jamak inginpun tunggal, dipakai “were”. Sedangkan, pada kesimpulan atau arti (meaning) tetap dipakai “was” dan “were”.

Penggunaan :

  1. Type 1
    Digunakan untuk membicarakan sebuah kecukupan yang belum terjadi sesampai kemudian masih ada kecukupan akan terjadi. Type 1 juga sanggup dipakai untuk menyatakan fakta umum. Ketik berbicara wacana fakta umum, biasanya dipakai main clause dalam bentuk simple present juga. Kita juga sanggup memakai conditional tipe 1 dengan kalimat perintah menyerupai referensi pada nomor tiga di bawah ini.

    Example :

    • If the weather is fine, we will go out for a walk (menyatakan sebuah kecukupan).
    • If the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by three, the number is divisible by three (Fakta).
    • If you meet my brother, please tell him that I need to talk to him (menyatakan perintah).
  2. Type 2
    Digunakan untuk membicarakan wacana bencana kini (present) yang berlawanan dengan kalimat pengandaiannya. Dengan kata lain, kalimat pengandain tersebut terdapat arti atau kesimpulan yang berlawanan.

    Example :

    • If I became president, I would change the social security system (meaning : I don’t become president).
    • If Lia were ready, She would be much more confident (meaning : Lia is not ready, so she is not confident).
  3. Type 3
    Digunakan untuk membicarakan bencana atau keadaan lampau (past) yang berlawanan dengan kalimat pengandaiannya.

    Example :

    • If he hadn’t been careless, his car wouldn’t have hit that tree (meaning : he was careless and his car hit the tree).
    • If you had warned me, I would not have told your father about that party (meaning : you didn’t warn me, so I told your father).

Penghilangan “If”

Kalimat bersyarat sanggup diubah menjadi bentuk lain dengan menghilangkan “if” namun tak merubah artinya. Berikut tabel yang menawarkan cara penghilangan “if” pada masing-masing tipe kalimat bersyarat.
Conditional Penghilangan “if” Meaning
I. If Simple Present
S + V1-s/es
S + is/am/are
Should + S + V1 Masih cukup terjadi.
Maybe, Perhaps,
Probably, Possibly.
Example :
If I have much money, I will buy those motorcycles.
Should I have much money, I’ll buy those motorcycles.
Maybe I have much money
and buy those motorcycles.
II. If Simple Past
S + V2
S + were
Were + S + adj/adv/noun
Were + S + to + V1
Simple Present
S + V1-s,es/ is,am,are
Berlawanan dengan kalimat
Example :
I would have the computer if the price were cheaper.
Were the price cheaper, I would have the cmputer.
I don’t have the computer.
The price is not cheaper.
III. If Past Perfect
S + had + V3
S + had + been
Had + S + V3
Had + S + been
Simple Past
S + V2/was/were
Berlawanan dengan kalimat
Example :
If She had stayed with me last night, She wouldn’t have been so lonely.
Had she stayed with me last night, she wouldn’t have been so lonely.
She stayed with another man.
She was lonely.